Month: April 2020

Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS Introduction “Fungus like bacteria” as branching forms seen in liquid media. Slender rods Aerobic bacilli non spore forming non motile, non capsulated Cell wall rich in lipids Acid-fast bacilli Very slow growing Genus Mycobacteria : Classification Cultivable:Three groups: Obligate parasites (MTB complex) Opportunistic pathogens (Atypical mycobacteria/NTM/MOTT) Saprophytes (M.Phlei, M.Smegmatis) M.Leprae (non cultivable) Mycobacterium …

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Stomach

Location to Stomach The stomach is the widestpart of the alimentarytract and lies between theoesophagus and theduodenum. It is situated in the upperabdomen, extending fromthe left upper quadrantdownwards, forwards and to the right, lying in theleft hypochondriac, epigastric and umbilicalareas. MEAN CAPACITY The mean capacity of the stomach 30 ml at birth 1000 m] at …

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Protein synthesis and genetic code

Introduction to Protein synthesis and genetic code   Genetic information is stored in the chromosome and transmitted to daughter cells through replication. It is expressed to RNA through transcription. From the mRNA genetic information is translated to polypeptides. the flow of information from DNA -> RNA -> protein is called central dogma. Genetic code   …

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Lymphoma

Introduction to Lymphoma It was named after Thomas Hodgkin who firstdescribed it in 1832. Previously called as Hodgkin’s disease. Dorothy Reed and Carl Sternberg first described the malignant cells of Hodgkin lymphoma calledReed Sternberg cells. Hodgkin lymphoma was the first cancer which could be successfully treated by radiation therapy and also by combination chemotherapy Definition …

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Angina

Introduction to Angina Symptom complex caused by transient myocardial ischemia and constitutes a “clinical syndrome’ rather than a disease. The term derives from the Latin angina (“infection of the throat’) from the Greek ankhoné (“strangling’), and the Latin pectus (“chest”), and can therefore be translated as “astrangling feeling in the chest’. intermittent chest paincaused by …

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Gastro Intestinal Tract – II (Gastritis & Peptic ulcer)

Introduction to Gastritis & Peptic ulcer Inflammatory Lisions The two important inflammatory conditions of stomach are :- Gastritis Peptic ulcer Gastritis Gastritis is a mucosal inflammatory process. Clinically upper abdominal discomfort like indigestion or dyspepsia When neutrophils are present, the lesion is referred to as acute Gastritis. ETIOPATHOGENESS Diet and personal habits:i) Highly spiced foodii) …

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HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

Introduction to Haemoglobinopathies HAEMOGLOBIN VARIANTS 1. Sickle syndromes: i. Sickle-cell trait ii. Sickle-cell disease 2. Unstable hemoglobins: Congenital Heinz body anemia; Hb Zurich  3. Hemoglobins with abnormal oxygen affinity: i. High affinity- Polycythemia (familial): Hb Chesapeake ii. Low affinity- Cyanosis (familial): HbM 4. Structural variations leading to thalassemia: i. Alpha thalassemia- Hb Constant spring ii. …

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