Month: July 2020

Various Modes of Inheritance

Introduction Various Modes of Inheritance CHROMOSOMES The chromosomes (German: chromosome = a readily staining body) are deeply stained minute rod-like structures in nucleus of the cell formed by condensation of chromatin during cell division. They contain DNA encoding genetic information inherited from the parents. The individual chromosomes are best defined (visible) under microscope only during …

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Complications of Diabetes

Introduction to COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES Both types of diabetes mellitus may develop complications broadly divided into 2 major groups:I. Acute metabolic complicationsIl. Late systemic complications DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS (DKA) Clinically, the condition is characterised by Anorexia, Nausea, vomitings, Deep and labored breathing (kussmaul breathing), Mental confusion and coma Most patients of ketoacidosis recover. Severe lack of …

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Epstein Barr Virus

Introduction To Epstein Barr Virus GAMMA HERPES VIRUS CAUSES INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH NASOPHARYNGEALCARCINOMA BURKITT LYMPHOMA, HODGKIN DISEASE BCELL LYMPHOMA ANTIGEN Latent phase Antigen-synthesized in latent phase Early Antigen-non structural proteins Late Antigens-structural proteins Infected B – cells become IMMORTALISED POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY formation Infectious Mononucleosis Transmitted by oral contact Kissing disease Young age group more …

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Introduction to Virginity Also known as Virgo Intacta. DEFINITION: Virgin is a female who has not experienced sexual intercourse. Signs of virginity : Extra genital signs (in breast) Genital signs GENITALS LABIA MAJORA LABIA MINORA VAGINAL WALL VESTIBULE POSTERIOR COMMISURE FORCHETTE FOSSA NAVICULARIS HYMEN TYPES OF HYMEN SEMILUNAR ANNULAR INFANTILE CRIBRIFORM VERTICAL SEPTATE IMPERFORATE CARUNCULAE …

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Anti-Microbial drugs

Introduction to Anti-Microbial Drugs Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy: which has come to mean treatment of systemic infections with specific drugs that selectively suppress the infecting microorganism without significantly affecting the host. Terminology: Antibiotics: These are substances produced by microorganisms, which selectively suppress the growth of or kill other microorganisms at very low concentrations. Ex: Penicillin Antimicrobial agent …

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3rd Year MBBS Question Paper’s

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Introduction to Eicosanoids Eicosanoids are a group of 20-C compounds derived from arachidonic acid, which act as local hormones Prostaglandins and related compounds- prostacyclins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes are collectively known as eicosanoids becoz they are all 20-C.  PG contain a five membered cyclopentane ring PC contain five membered oxygen containing ring TX contain six membered …


Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction to Diabetes Mellitus Normal Insulin Metabolism C-peptide is less susceptible to degradation &used as a marker to distinguish endogenouslysynthesised and exogenously administeredinsulin. Release -Glucose is key regulator (Others – nutrients in meal, ketones, amino acids): i) Hyperglycaemia (glucose level >70 mg/dl or 3.9 mmol/L)stimulates transport of a glucose transporter, GLUT2. ii) An enzyme, glucokinase, …

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Introduction to Thalamus The thalamus is an essential link in the transfer of sensory information (other than olfactory) from receptors in the periphery to sensory processing regions of the cerebral hemispheres. It was previously thought that the thalamus acted only as a relay station for sensory information traveling to the neocortex, but it is now …

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