Month: August 2020

Chemical Examination of Urine

Introduction to Chemical Examination of Urine The chemical examination is carried out for the following substances :- Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Hemoglobin Myoglobin Nitrite or leukocyte esterase Chemical Examination of Proteins Normally, kidneys excrete scant amount of protein in urine (up to 150 mg/24 hours) These proteins include proteins from plasma …

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Physical & Microscopic Examination of Urine

Physical Examination of Urine Volume Odor Color Specific gravity Appearance pH Volume (Physical Examination) Average 24-hr urinary output in adults – 600-2000 ml. Polyuria means urinary volume > 2000 ml/24 hours- e.g.-diabetes mellitus (osmotic diuresis), Oliguria means urinary volume < 400 ml/24 hours- e.g. congestive cardiac failure Anuria means urinary output < 100 ml/24 hours …

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Pelvis

Introduction to Pelvis “Pelvis” literally means a basin.  It is made up of four bones: two hip (innominate) bones, sacrum, and coccyx, bound to each other by the ligaments. Functions of the pelvis: Contains pelvic viscera (urinary bladder and rectum in both sexes and uterus in female) and protects them. Supports weight of body and …

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Brain Death

Introduction to brain Death Death is an irreversible, biological event that  consists of permanent cessation of the critical  function of the organism as a whole,  especially respiration and heart beat. Brain death is an irreversible form of  unconsciousness characterized by a loss of  brain function while the heart continuous to  beat. History – Earliest Human …

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Papilloma Virus

Introduction to Papilloma Virus SV-40 BK JC Great oncogenic potential Papilloma Virus Infect squamous epithelial cells Affects only Man 16,18 – cervical cancer 6,11 – intra epithelial neoplasia Papilloma virus cond. A Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that infects the epidermis and mucous membranes Both vaccines protest against two of the HPV types (HPV-16 …

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