Month: September 2020


Introduction to Leishmania Three important diseases are caused by three different species of leishmania. Leishmania donovanii :- Kala azar, post kala azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) Leshmania tropica :- Oriental sore (cutaneous Leishmaniasis) or Old world Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (OWCL) Leishmania braziliensis :- Espundia (Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis or New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (NWCL) These Parasites are transmitted from …

Leishmania Read More »

Anti malarial Drugs

Introduction to Anti malarial Drugs Malaria in humans is caused by protozoan species: Plasmodium falciparum P.vivax P.ovale P.molariae It is transmitted by the bite of female anopheles mosquitoes Occurs throughout the tropics and subtropics at altitudes below 1500 metres Life cycle of Malaria Dormant form -> Hypnozonite P.vivax P.ovale Infective form -> Merozoite Rosette formation …

Anti malarial Drugs Read More »

Antiamoebic Drugs

Introduction to Antiamoebic drugs Entamoeba histolytica Lösch discovered amoebae associated with severe dysentery in a patient in 1873 Amebiasis Caused by E.hystolitica 10% of world population , 50 million people Poor hygiene, lower socio-economic groups, poverty & crowded conditions Feco-oral transmission fecal contamination of food & water Clinical Presentation : Dysentery, Granulomatous lesion (amoeboma), Liver …

Antiamoebic Drugs Read More »


Introduction to Giardia Giardia intestinalis G.lamblia Cosmopoltan Protozoan Parasite Inhabits Small Intestine of Man Causes Giardiasis Discovered by – LEEUWENHOEK Named after – Prof.GIARD & Prof.Lambl Habitat – Duodenum Upper Jejumum Morphology Exists in phases – Trophozoite Cysts TROPHOZOITE Tennis/Badminton Racket shape DORSAL SURFACE-CONVEX VENTRAL SURFACE-CONCAVE ,SUCKING DISC SIZE-14×7 micron ANT.END-ROUND N BROAD POST.END-TAPERS INTO …

GIARDIA Read More »

Leprosy Drug Therapy

Introduction to Leprosy World’s oldest disease Described in ancient Indian texts from the sixth century B.C. Hansen’s disease Nonfatal, chronic infectious disease Mycobacterium leprae intracellular, acid fast bacilli aerobic surrounded by the waxy cell membrane coating characteristic of Mycobacterial species Route of transmission remains uncertain and multiple. Nasal droplet infection, contact with infected soil, and …

Leprosy Drug Therapy Read More »

Protozoa : Amoeba

Introduction to Protozoa Phylum Sarcomastigophora Sarcodina- move by pseudopodia E. histolytica Mastigophora-move by flagella-Giardia lamblia Apicomplexa -no organelle of locomotion-Plasmodium Ciliophora- move by cillia-Balantidium Microspora – Spore-forming-Enterocytozoa Intestinal Protozoa Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Balantidium coli Giardia lamblia Dientanceba fragilis Cryptosporidium parvum Enteracytozoon bieneusi Septata intestinalis Cyclospora cayetanensis Isospora belli Commensal (non-pathogenic) Entamoeba hartmani Entamoeba dispar Entamoeba …

Protozoa : Amoeba Read More »

Anti-viral Drugs

Introduction to Anti-viral Drugs RNA Virus Classification of Anti-viral Drugs Acyclovir & Valcyclovir (Anti-viral Drugs) Mechanism of Resistance Acyclovir Alteration in viral thymidine kinase Alteration in viral DNA polymerase Cross-resistance with valacyclovir, famciclovir, and ganciclovir Dose : 400 mg TDS or 200 mg 4-5 times a day (acyclovir) 1 gm BD or TDS for 7-10 …

Anti-viral Drugs Read More »

Anti-Retroviral Drugs

Introduction To Anti-Retroviral Drugs General Principles of Viruses Viruses are intracellular parasites, i.e. they utilize: Host metabolic enzymes Host ribosome for protein synthesis Structure of viruses Nucleic acid core: DNA or RNA (never both) Often contain crucial virus-specific enzymes Surrounded by protein: “capsid” and sometimes an outer lipid “envelope” Complete viral particle: “virion” Often visible …

Anti-Retroviral Drugs Read More »

Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs

Introduction to Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NASIDs) NSAIDs- group of drugs having analgesic, anti-inflammatory & antipyretic property and therefore it is called as NSAIDs. Since corticosteroids- possess potent anti-inflammatory activity, so to differentiate these from corticosteroids the term nonsteroidal is prefix. There are also called nonopioid/non-narcotics analgesics to differentiate them from opioids/ narcotics which are …

Non Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
 (NSAIDs) Read More »