Month: October 2020

Antifungal Drugs

Introduction to Antifungal Drugs Antifungal Drugs- Polyene antibiotics Polyene is derived from their highly double-bonded structure. Prototype: Amphotericin 8B (AMB) Source: Streptomyces nodosus MOA: The polyenes have high affinity for ergosterol present in fungal cell membrane. This Polyenes are combine with membrane protein and form a ‘micrgpore‘ and increase the cell permeability (ions, amino acids …

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Cardiac Poisons

Introduction to Cardiac Poisons Aconite Chinchona alkaloids Digitalis purpurea Nicotiana Tobacum Aconite (Cardiac Poisons) All parts are poisonouns Active principles- Aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, zesaconitine Machanism of action – Na+ channel activation -> premature excitation -> repeated depolerisation Texokinetics– absorb through all routes, eliminated through urine Sign & Symptoms GIT- BURNING, NUMBNESS, TINGLING, SALIVATION, DIARROHEA CVS-atrial …

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Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathophysiology & Treatment

Introduction to Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the commonest progressive, dementing neurodegenerative disease in elderly, which affects innumerable people each year, and these numbers are likely to further increase as the population ages. In addition to the financial burden of AD on health care system, the discase has powerful emotional impact on caregivers and …

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Ancylostoma duodenale (Hook worm)

Introduction to Ancylostoma duodenale (Hook worm) HOOKWORM (ANCYLOSTOMA), ROUND WORM(ASCARIS), WHIPWORM(TRICHURIS) ARE KNOWN AS… SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS Hookworm infections is mainly acquired by walking barefoot on contaminated soil. Ancylostoma duodenale Common name: hookworm Habitat: Small intestine(jejunum) Definitive host: man Route of infection: skin penetration Infective stage: Third stage larvae (filariform) Diagnostic stage: Eggs in Stool Disease: …

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Dracunculus Medinensis

Introduction to Dracunculus Medinensis Dracunculus Medinensis causes Guinea worm disease or Dracunculiasis. Involves subcutaneous tissues(leg and foot). Transmitted exclusively when people drink stagnant water contaminated with parasite Classification of Dracunculus Medinensis EPIDEMIOLOGY The incidence has been reduced from south east Asia due to proper global eradication programme. Asia has now been deemed as Dracunculiasis free. …

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Antiparkinsonian Drugs

Introduction to AntiParkinsonian Drugs Parkinsonism – History Parkinson’s disease was first formally described in “An Essay on the Shaking Palsy,” published in 1817 by a London physician named James Parkinson, but it has probably existed for many thousands of years. Majority of causes are Idiopathic Parkinsonism A degenerative and progressive disorder Associated with neurological consequences …

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Sexual Offences

Introduction to Sexual offences Sexual offences can be defined as sexual or sex oriented acts or assaults including sexual intercourse performed against the provision of law. A sex offender is one who commits a sexual offence Classification Sexual offences may be classified as below: Natural Sexual offences Unnatural sexual offences Sex linked offences Sexual perversions …

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General Anaesthetics

Introduction to General Anaesthetics General anaesthetics (GAs) are drugs which produce Loss of all sensation, especially pain Unconsciousness and amnesia Immobility and muscle relaxation Abolition of somatic and autonomic reflexes. History Crawford Long, Physician from Georgia: 1842, ether anesthesia Chloroform introduced by James Simpson: 1847 Nitrous oxide Horace Wells in 1844 Stages of Anaesthesia GAs …

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