Ancylostoma duodenale (Hook worm)

Introduction to Ancylostoma duodenale (Hook worm)

  • HOOKWORM (ANCYLOSTOMA),
  • ROUND WORM(ASCARIS),
  • WHIPWORM(TRICHURIS)
  • ARE KNOWN AS… SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS
  • Hookworm infections is mainly acquired by walking barefoot on contaminated soil.

Ancylostoma duodenale

  • Common name: hookworm
  • Habitat: Small intestine(jejunum)
  • Definitive host: man
  • Route of infection: skin penetration
  • Infective stage: Third stage larvae (filariform)
  • Diagnostic stage: Eggs in Stool
  • Disease: Hookworm infection, Ancylostomiasis
  • Geographic Distribution: Southern Europe, North parts of Africa, China, India, (UP,Punjab) and Japan.

Morphology of Hook worm

  • ADULT WORM – small greyish white cylindrical
  • Anterior end bent slight dorsally so c/a HOOK WORM
  • Bend is in same direction as general body curvature.
  • Oral aperture directed towards dorsal surface
  • anterior end ….. buccal capsule (analogous to mouth) lined with hard substance
  • Provided with 6 teeth,
  • 4 hooks on ventral surface
  • 2 triangular plates on dorsal
  • Posterior end of the male – copulatory bursa
  • Life span -> 3-4 yrs
Copulatory bursa of male

EGGS of Hook worm

  • Shape : oval with an empty space – between the shell and content
  • Size: 6S x 40 micrometer
  • Shell: thin egg shells
  • Colour: colourless and transparents
  • FLOAT IN SATURATED SOLUTION OF SALT
  • Content: 4 blastomeres
  • Immature eggs pass in feces
  • EGGS ARE LAID IN AN UNSEGMENTED STAGE,DURING PASSAGE THRU BOWEL PROCEED UP TO 4 CELLED STAGE.
  • THESE EGGS ARE NOT INFECTIVE TO MAN

Larva of Hook worm

  • Rhabditiform larva
    • thin, moults 2 times
    • size: 200-400 micron
  • Filariform larva
    • size: 600-700 micron

Life Cycle of Hook worm

  • GROWING LARVA SETTLE DOWN IN INTESTINE,
  • UNDERGO FOURTH MOULTING,
  • DEVELOP INTO ADULT WORM

Clinical Manifestations

  • Invasion stage:
    • The skin, at the site of entry of filariform larva
    • Maculopapular lesions “ ground itch” or “dew itch” Itching, edema.
    • COMMON SITES-
      • THIN SKIN B/W TOES DORSUM OF FEET
      • INNER SIDE OF SOLES
  • CREEPING ERUPTION- filariform larva moves thru skin in aimless manner for several weeks n months producing reddish itchy papule along the path.
  • Mostly seen in A.brazhense,A.caninum
Ground itch or “dew itch”
  • Migration stage: passage of the larvae in the lung leads to:
    • Haemorrhages and broncho
    • pneumonia, cough, fever, eosinophillia.
  • Intestinal Stage:
    1. sucking of blood by the worm-
      • Severe anaemia leads to weakness.
      • 0.15-0.26 mL of blood may be withdrawn by a Ancylstoma in 24 hour.
      • Approximately SO% of the red blood cells are hemolyzed
    2. Bleeding at the site of attachment and after movement to a new sites.
    3. Toxic substances .
      • intestinal ulcers: flatulence, nausea, vomiting ,diarrhea.
  • The blood loss is from sucking by the worm and also from continuing haemorrhage at the site of attachment
feeding hookworms
  • Epigastric pain
  • Patient may have abnormal appetite,eating mud or lime(PICA/GEOPKAGY)
  • Amenorrhea, sterility, abortionmay take place in women.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Fatty diarrhoea
  • Infantile hookworm disease

Lab Diagnosis

  • Direct Method
    • Stool examination
    • Study of duodenal contents (may reveal eggs or parasite)
  • Indirect Method
    • Examination of blood – for anaemia, eosinophillia

Treatment of Hook worm

  • Bephenium hydroxynaphthoate
  • Mebendazole
  • lron and folic acid

Other Microbiology Notes:

Protozoa : Amoeba

GIARDIA

Leishmania

Dracunculus Medinensis

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    doğal şekilde ilerlemek olur. Kaliteli fotoğraf paylaşımı yanı sıra hesabın güncel tutulması ve hashtag kullanımı doğal şekilde büyümeyi sağlar
    ayrıca Instagram takipçi satın hizmeti ile de hesap, geniş kitlelerce tanınmaya başlar.

    Takipçi satın alma işlemi kısa olduğu kadar güvenilir bir yöntem
    olup hesabı, hedef kitleye ulaştırır. Hesapta paylaşılan gönderiler bu
    sayede Instagram keşfet’e de düşer. Bu alanda görülen her hesap, daha fazla takipçi elde etme imkânı bulur.

    Takipçi Satın Al

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