Dr. Shawn Murphy

Pathology Practical (SPECIMENS)

Introduction to Pathology Practical (Specimens) Following Specimens are Important for Viva and spotting purposes, this presentation contains important morphological and microscopy points. Osteoclastoma Osteogenic sarcoma or osteoclastoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour. Classically, the tumour occurs in young patients between the age of 10 to 20 years. The tumour arises in the …

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Candida

Introduction to Mycology (Candida) Medical mycology – branch of medical science thatdeals with the study of medically important fungi ‘fungus’ is derived from Greek ‘mykes’ meaning mushroom (a type of edible fungus) Fungi differ from bacteria & other eukaryotes Eukaryotic and possess eukaryotic cell organelles Possess a rigid cell wall, composed of chitin, B-glucans and …

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Subcutaneous Fungal Infection

Introduction to Subcutaneous Fungal Infection Subcutaneous fungal infection primarily involve the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and adjacent bone. The disease process usually starts following a trivial trauma which is the sole source of infection. Major subcutaneous Mycoses are: Mycetoma Sporotrichosis Chromoblastomycosis Phaeohyphomycosis Lobomycosis Rhinosporidiosis (now not a Fungus) Sporotrichosis A chronic , pyogranulomatous fungal infection of …

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NEUROTICS (ALCOHOL)

Introduction to Neurotics (Alcohol) CEREBRAL : CNS DEPRESSANTS – e.g., Alcohol, GA, Opioid analgesics, Sedatives, Hypnotics. CNS STIMULANTS — e.g., CAD, Caffine, Amphetamine, Methylphenidate. DELIRIANTS — Dhatura, Cannabis, Cocaine, Atropa belladona, Hyocyamus. SPINAL : e.g. Strychnos nux vomica, Gelsemium. PERIPHERAL : e.g. Conium , Curare. Inebriants Inebriant —produces Intoxication Light headedness, confusion, disorientation, drowsiness. Prolonged …

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Anticancer Drugs

Introduction to Anticancer The anticancer drugs either kill cancer cells or modify their growth — but, selectivity of these drugs limited — damages normal cells too — highly toxic No Treatment: Before 1940 (Nitrogen mustard) Surgery: before 1955 Radiotherapy: 1955 — 1965 Chemotherapy: after 1945 Immunotherapy, Hormone therapy , stem cell transplant and Gene therapy …

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Critical Appraisal of Drug Promotional Literature

Introduction to Critical Appraisal All informational and persuasive activities by manufacturers and distributors , the effect of which is to induce the prescription, supply, purchase /or use of medical drugs is termed as DRUG PROMOTION It is an important bearing on the rational use of drugs, price-control mechanisms, manufacture, availability and the use of essential …

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Mania

Introduction to Mania/Psychiatric Disorders Disordered functioning in the areas of emotions, perception, thinking and memory, and have no clearly established biological basis. Etiology of Psychiatric Disorders: Genetic Brain Structure and Functions: The brain structure remains largely normal The functioning of the brain Is commonly altered with, for example, changes in neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine …

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Schistosoma: Blood Flukes (Bilharzia)

Introduction to Schistosoma: Blood Flukes (Bilharzia) Cause Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis The three main species infecting humans are Schistosoma haematobium S. japonicum S. mansoni Two other species, more localized geographically, are S.mekongi (Thailand) and S. intercalatum (West central Africa) Schistosomiasis: Geographical Distribution S. haematobium in Africa and the Middle East An isolated focus of endemicity was …

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Antifungal Drugs

Introduction to Antifungal Drugs Antifungal Drugs- Polyene antibiotics Polyene is derived from their highly double-bonded structure. Prototype: Amphotericin 8B (AMB) Source: Streptomyces nodosus MOA: The polyenes have high affinity for ergosterol present in fungal cell membrane. This Polyenes are combine with membrane protein and form a ‘micrgpore‘ and increase the cell permeability (ions, amino acids …

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