Biochemistry

EICOSANOIDS

Introduction to Eicosanoids Eicosanoids are a group of 20-C compounds derived from arachidonic acid, which act as local hormones Prostaglandins and related compounds- prostacyclins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes are collectively known as eicosanoids becoz they are all 20-C.  PG contain a five membered cyclopentane ring PC contain five membered oxygen containing ring TX contain six membered …

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Triacylglycerol And Adipose tissue Metabolism

Triacylglycerol And Adipose tissue Metabolism Metabolism of Triacylglycerol Triacylglycerols are synthesized mainly in liver, adipose tissue and intestinal cells.  There are two pathways:  The general pathway, which is operational in liver, adipose tissue and other organs where fatty acids synthesis occur  The intestinal pathway, which is responsible for resynthesis of TAG following digestion and absorption of …

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Cancer

Introduction to Cancer Cancer is a disease where cells grow out of control & invade, erode & destroy normal tissue. Normal body cells grow, divide die in an ordinary fasion. cancer cells are different because they do not die, they just continue to grow and divide in a disorderly fashion. The term cancer applies to …

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Glucose Estimation

Introduction to ESTIMATION OF GLUCOSE  1. BACKGROUND: Estimation of glucose in blood has become a routine practice in clinical biochemistry for screening of metabolic disorder like diabetes mellitus. Abnormalities of blood sugar level reflects disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism.  2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: At the end of this practical student should be able to; Estimate the serum …

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RENAL FUNCTION TEST

Introduction to RENAL FUNCTION TEST FORMATION OF URINE Nephron is the functional unit of kidney. Strucure of nephron-bowman’s capsules,proximal convoluted tubule(PCT),loop of Henle , distal convoluted tubule, collecting tubule. Process involves 2 steps- a)Glomerular filtration b)tubular reabsorption RENAL THRESHOLD SUBSTANCES Certain substances in blood whose excretion in urine is dependent on their concentration.Such substances are …

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Electron Transport Chain & Biological Oxidation

Introduction to Oxidation & Electron Transport Chain We require energy for various activities e.g. muscle contraction, nerve conduction, synthetic reactions, active transport etc. The ultimate source of energy is the food that we Consume. Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins present in food provide us energy. The complex molecules present in food are digested in the gastrointestinal …

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ACIDIC AMINO ACIDS (Aspartate and Glutamate)

Introduction to ACIDIC AMINO ACIDS (Aspartate and Glutamate) ASPARTATE AND ASPARAGINE (Acidic Amino Acids) Aspartate and asparagine are interconvertible L-asparaginase is used as an anticancer agent in the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas Salient features of aspartate metabolism are given below Asp contributes one amino group for the synthesis of urea Malate- Aspartate shuttle transfers the …

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Hydroxy amino acids

Introduction of Hydroxy amino acids Introduction of Serine (Hydroxy amino acids) Aliphatic hydroxy amino acid. Non essential amino acid. Glucogenic. Isolated by Cramer in 1865. Serine Biosynthesis (Hydroxy amino acids) The main pathway to serine starts with the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate. An NADH-linked dehydrogenase converts 3-phosphoglycerate into a keto acid, 3-phosphopyruvate, suitable for subsequent transamination.  …

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METABOLISM OF INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS

Introduction to METABOLISM OF INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS Protein metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the synthesis of proteins and amino acids (anabolism), and the breakdown of proteins by catabolism. Glycine Simplest amino acid and is the only amino acid which does not exhibit optical isomerism Non essential amino acid and glycogenic Glycine in Proteins Commonly occuring amino acid in protein structure. …

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