Microbiology

Candida

Introduction to Mycology (Candida) Medical mycology – branch of medical science thatdeals with the study of medically important fungi ‘fungus’ is derived from Greek ‘mykes’ meaning mushroom (a type of edible fungus) Fungi differ from bacteria & other eukaryotes Eukaryotic and possess eukaryotic cell organelles Possess a rigid cell wall, composed of chitin, B-glucans and …

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Subcutaneous Fungal Infection

Introduction to Subcutaneous Fungal Infection Subcutaneous fungal infection primarily involve the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and adjacent bone. The disease process usually starts following a trivial trauma which is the sole source of infection. Major subcutaneous Mycoses are: Mycetoma Sporotrichosis Chromoblastomycosis Phaeohyphomycosis Lobomycosis Rhinosporidiosis (now not a Fungus) Sporotrichosis A chronic , pyogranulomatous fungal infection of …

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Schistosoma: Blood Flukes (Bilharzia)

Introduction to Schistosoma: Blood Flukes (Bilharzia) Cause Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis The three main species infecting humans are Schistosoma haematobium S. japonicum S. mansoni Two other species, more localized geographically, are S.mekongi (Thailand) and S. intercalatum (West central Africa) Schistosomiasis: Geographical Distribution S. haematobium in Africa and the Middle East An isolated focus of endemicity was …

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Ancylostoma duodenale (Hook worm)

Introduction to Ancylostoma duodenale (Hook worm) HOOKWORM (ANCYLOSTOMA), ROUND WORM(ASCARIS), WHIPWORM(TRICHURIS) ARE KNOWN AS… SOIL-TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS Hookworm infections is mainly acquired by walking barefoot on contaminated soil. Ancylostoma duodenale Common name: hookworm Habitat: Small intestine(jejunum) Definitive host: man Route of infection: skin penetration Infective stage: Third stage larvae (filariform) Diagnostic stage: Eggs in Stool Disease: …

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Dracunculus Medinensis

Introduction to Dracunculus Medinensis Dracunculus Medinensis causes Guinea worm disease or Dracunculiasis. Involves subcutaneous tissues(leg and foot). Transmitted exclusively when people drink stagnant water contaminated with parasite Classification of Dracunculus Medinensis EPIDEMIOLOGY The incidence has been reduced from south east Asia due to proper global eradication programme. Asia has now been deemed as Dracunculiasis free. …

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Leishmania

Introduction to Leishmania Three important diseases are caused by three different species of leishmania. Leishmania donovanii :- Kala azar, post kala azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) Leshmania tropica :- Oriental sore (cutaneous Leishmaniasis) or Old world Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (OWCL) Leishmania braziliensis :- Espundia (Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis or New World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (NWCL) These Parasites are transmitted from …

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GIARDIA

Introduction to Giardia Giardia intestinalis G.lamblia Cosmopoltan Protozoan Parasite Inhabits Small Intestine of Man Causes Giardiasis Discovered by – LEEUWENHOEK Named after – Prof.GIARD & Prof.Lambl Habitat – Duodenum Upper Jejumum Morphology Exists in phases – Trophozoite Cysts TROPHOZOITE Tennis/Badminton Racket shape DORSAL SURFACE-CONVEX VENTRAL SURFACE-CONCAVE ,SUCKING DISC SIZE-14×7 micron ANT.END-ROUND N BROAD POST.END-TAPERS INTO …

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Protozoa : Amoeba

Introduction to Protozoa Phylum Sarcomastigophora Sarcodina- move by pseudopodia E. histolytica Mastigophora-move by flagella-Giardia lamblia Apicomplexa -no organelle of locomotion-Plasmodium Ciliophora- move by cillia-Balantidium Microspora – Spore-forming-Enterocytozoa Intestinal Protozoa Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica Balantidium coli Giardia lamblia Dientanceba fragilis Cryptosporidium parvum Enteracytozoon bieneusi Septata intestinalis Cyclospora cayetanensis Isospora belli Commensal (non-pathogenic) Entamoeba hartmani Entamoeba dispar Entamoeba …

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