pathology

Pathology Practical (SPECIMENS)

Introduction to Pathology Practical (Specimens) Following Specimens are Important for Viva and spotting purposes, this presentation contains important morphological and microscopy points. Osteoclastoma Osteogenic sarcoma or osteoclastoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour. Classically, the tumour occurs in young patients between the age of 10 to 20 years. The tumour arises in the …

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Chemical Examination of Urine

Introduction to Chemical Examination of Urine The chemical examination is carried out for the following substances :- Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Hemoglobin Myoglobin Nitrite or leukocyte esterase Chemical Examination of Proteins Normally, kidneys excrete scant amount of protein in urine (up to 150 mg/24 hours) These proteins include proteins from plasma …

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Physical & Microscopic Examination of Urine

Physical Examination of Urine Volume Odor Color Specific gravity Appearance pH Volume (Physical Examination) Average 24-hr urinary output in adults – 600-2000 ml. Polyuria means urinary volume > 2000 ml/24 hours- e.g.-diabetes mellitus (osmotic diuresis), Oliguria means urinary volume < 400 ml/24 hours- e.g. congestive cardiac failure Anuria means urinary output < 100 ml/24 hours …

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Oesophageal Carcinoma

Introduction To Oesophageal Carcinoma Vast majority of Carcinoma Oesophagus fall into two types : SCC ( Epidermoid Carcinoma) Adenocarcinoma More Common in men – >50 years Etiology : Diet & personal habits : Heavy Smoking Alcohol Consumption Fungus Contaminated food Oesophageal Disorder Ocsophagitis (esp. Barretts esophagus in adeno Carcinoma) Achalasia Hiatus Hernia Diverticuld Plummer-Vinson Syndrome …

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Emphysema & Bronchiectaisis (Pathology Practical)

Introduction to Emphysema Normal Lung Histology Emphysema Emphysema is permanent dilation of air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole resulting in destruction of the walls of dilated air spaces. Etiopathogenesis : Tobacoo smoking Air pollution Occupational exposure Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency Gross The lungs is expanded voluminous Pale Edges of lung are rounded Mild cases dilation …

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Respiratory Pathology – I

Introduction Respiratory Pathology – I Pneumonia Defined as any infection in the lung. Etiology- bacteria, virus, fungi etc. Bacterial pneumonia has 2 anatomic distribution: lobular bronchopneumonia and lobar pneumonia. Bronchopneumonia – patchy consolidation of lung. Lobar pneumonia – consolidation of a large portion of a lobe or of an entire lobe i.e. Confluent appearance. Histology …

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APLASTIC ANEMIA

Introduction to Aplastic anemia Aplastic anemia is a severe, life threatening  syndrome in which failure of production of  erythrocytes, WBCs, and plateletsoccur. Aplastic anaemia may occur in all age groups  and both genders. History of Aplastic anaemia Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) described the first case of aplastic anaemia in a pregnant woman who died of marrow …

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Blood Banking and Transfusion – II (Compatibility Test)

Compatibility Test A full cross-matching procedure consists of: Immediate spin cross-match at room temperature Indirect antiglobulin test at 37 degree Celcius. Immediate Spin Cross-Match Purpose of it to detect ABO incompatibility. Equal volumes of 2 % saline suspension of cells of donor and recipient’s serum are mixed, incubated at room temperature for 5 minutes and …

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Thyroid Gland – II (Graves Disease)

Thyroid Gland – II (Graves Disease) Robert James Graves Irish Surgeon, 1796-1853 Wrote and Published “Graves Clinical Lectures” in 1843 & 1848. Graves Disease is named in his honor by Dr. Armand Trousseau. Armand Trousseau French Intermist, 1801 – 1867 Trousseau Sign of Tetany Trousseau Sign of Malignancy Coined the term Graves Disease. Grave’s Disease …

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