Pharmacology

Anticancer Drugs

Introduction to Anticancer The anticancer drugs either kill cancer cells or modify their growth — but, selectivity of these drugs limited — damages normal cells too — highly toxic No Treatment: Before 1940 (Nitrogen mustard) Surgery: before 1955 Radiotherapy: 1955 — 1965 Chemotherapy: after 1945 Immunotherapy, Hormone therapy , stem cell transplant and Gene therapy …

Anticancer Drugs Read More »

Critical Appraisal of Drug Promotional Literature

Introduction to Critical Appraisal All informational and persuasive activities by manufacturers and distributors , the effect of which is to induce the prescription, supply, purchase /or use of medical drugs is termed as DRUG PROMOTION It is an important bearing on the rational use of drugs, price-control mechanisms, manufacture, availability and the use of essential …

Critical Appraisal of Drug Promotional Literature Read More »

Mania

Introduction to Mania/Psychiatric Disorders Disordered functioning in the areas of emotions, perception, thinking and memory, and have no clearly established biological basis. Etiology of Psychiatric Disorders: Genetic Brain Structure and Functions: The brain structure remains largely normal The functioning of the brain Is commonly altered with, for example, changes in neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine …

Mania Read More »

Antifungal Drugs

Introduction to Antifungal Drugs Antifungal Drugs- Polyene antibiotics Polyene is derived from their highly double-bonded structure. Prototype: Amphotericin 8B (AMB) Source: Streptomyces nodosus MOA: The polyenes have high affinity for ergosterol present in fungal cell membrane. This Polyenes are combine with membrane protein and form a ‘micrgpore‘ and increase the cell permeability (ions, amino acids …

Antifungal Drugs Read More »

Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathophysiology & Treatment

Introduction to Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the commonest progressive, dementing neurodegenerative disease in elderly, which affects innumerable people each year, and these numbers are likely to further increase as the population ages. In addition to the financial burden of AD on health care system, the discase has powerful emotional impact on caregivers and …

Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathophysiology & Treatment Read More »

Antiparkinsonian Drugs

Introduction to AntiParkinsonian Drugs Parkinsonism – History Parkinson’s disease was first formally described in “An Essay on the Shaking Palsy,” published in 1817 by a London physician named James Parkinson, but it has probably existed for many thousands of years. Majority of causes are Idiopathic Parkinsonism A degenerative and progressive disorder Associated with neurological consequences …

Antiparkinsonian Drugs Read More »

General Anaesthetics

Introduction to General Anaesthetics General anaesthetics (GAs) are drugs which produce Loss of all sensation, especially pain Unconsciousness and amnesia Immobility and muscle relaxation Abolition of somatic and autonomic reflexes. History Crawford Long, Physician from Georgia: 1842, ether anesthesia Chloroform introduced by James Simpson: 1847 Nitrous oxide Horace Wells in 1844 Stages of Anaesthesia GAs …

General Anaesthetics Read More »

Depression

Introduction to depression Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person’s thoughts, behavior, feelings, and sense of well-being. Prevalence: 5 % in the general population 10-20% in chronically ill medical patients Depression is a major cause of suicide It has strong ganetic predisposition triggered by stressful life …

Depression Read More »

Hypnotics – Sedative

Introduction to Hypnotics – Sedative Both are CNS depressants with different time action & dose action relationship. Sedatives- produce sedation only Hypnotic – induce sleep Definitions Sedative:– Drug that reduces excitement, responsiveness to any level of stimulation calms the patient without inducing sleep. Associated with J in motor activity. Sedatives in therapeutic doses are anxiolytic …

Hypnotics – Sedative Read More »

Anti-Epileptic Drugs

Epilepsy: Definition (Anti-Epileptic Drugs) Collective term for a group of chronic disorders of brain characterized by recurrent, paroxysmalseizures associated with disturbances of consciousness &/or characteristic body movement ( convulsion) and sometimes autonomic hyperactivity.  Periodic and unpredictable occurrence of  seizures Whats the Difference ? Seizure:  Sudden and transient episodes associated with abnormal excessive electrical discharges from …

Anti-Epileptic Drugs Read More »