Physiology

Brain Death

Introduction to brain Death Death is an irreversible, biological event that  consists of permanent cessation of the critical  function of the organism as a whole,  especially respiration and heart beat. Brain death is an irreversible form of  unconsciousness characterized by a loss of  brain function while the heart continuous to  beat. History – Earliest Human …

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MECHANISM OF FEVER

Introduction to Fever HOMEOTHERMIC VERSUS POIKILOTHERMIC ANIMALS Homeothermic animals, also called warm blooded animals,  Birds and mammals, including humans, belong to this category. Poikilothermic animals, also called cold blooded animals, do not have an efficient temperature regulating system; so their body temperature fluctuates with the fluctuations in the environmental temperature.  The reptiles, amphibians and fishes …

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Adaptation of Altered Temperature

Introduction Adaptation of Altered Temperature The environment temperature may be –20°C or +50°C, but the mouth temperature is about 37°C in both cases. The purpose of temperature regulation is to provide tissues a microenvironment at the optimal temperature, what is regulated is only the temperature of the internal environment, i.e. the temperature of the blood.  …

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Temperature Regulation

Introduction to Temperature Regulation Body Temperature Shell temperature: Temperature closer to skin Can vary depending upon environmental temperature Core temperature: Most important temperature Temperature of “core” (organs in cranial, thoracic and abdominal cavities) Rectal temperature (37.2o-37.6oC (99.0o-99.7oF) Shell’s thickness depends on environment needed to conserve body heat. Core body temperature remains constant with wide variation of …

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Learning, Memory & Speech : Higher function of the Brain

Introduction to Learning, Memory and Speech : Higher function of the Brain Functions of specific cortical areas Penfield and Rasmussen- defined areas during neurosurgical operation Cortical association areas Facial recognition area Located on the underside of the brain in the medial occipital and temporal lobes. Wernicke’s Area- a general interpretative area Angular gyrus – interpretation …

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Thalamus

Introduction to Thalamus The thalamus is an essential link in the transfer of sensory information (other than olfactory) from receptors in the periphery to sensory processing regions of the cerebral hemispheres. It was previously thought that the thalamus acted only as a relay station for sensory information traveling to the neocortex, but it is now …

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Basal ganglia


Introduction to Basal ganglia On each side of the brain, these ganglia  consist of the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. They are located mainly lateral to and  surrounding the thalamus, occupying a large  portion of the interior regions of both cerebral  hemispheres. Two main circuits The Putamen Circuit For executing …

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Congenital Kidney Diseases

1. Renal agenesis (absence of kidney):  when ureteric bud fails to develop unilateral or bilateral (Note ureteric bud induces the metanephric tissue to form metanephric blastema) (a) Unilateral renal agenesis ✓relatively common (therefore, a clinician should never presume that a patient always has two kidneys) ✓more common in males ✓asymptomatic and compatible with life because …

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