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Antehelminthic drugs

Introduction to Helminth Infestation (Antehelminthic drugs) Major global public health problems, more so in tropical countries Poverty, illiteracy, lack of adequate sanitary facilities and lack of pure water supply Helminths: multicellular organisms three germ layers and bilateral symmetry Main aim of treatment Reduce the load of infection below the level of Clinical significance and not …

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Chemical Examination of Urine

Introduction to Chemical Examination of Urine The chemical examination is carried out for the following substances :- Proteins Glucose Ketones Bilirubin Bile salts Urobilinogen Blood Hemoglobin Myoglobin Nitrite or leukocyte esterase Chemical Examination of Proteins Normally, kidneys excrete scant amount of protein in urine (up to 150 mg/24 hours) These proteins include proteins from plasma …

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Papilloma Virus

Introduction to Papilloma Virus SV-40 BK JC Great oncogenic potential Papilloma Virus Infect squamous epithelial cells Affects only Man 16,18 – cervical cancer 6,11 – intra epithelial neoplasia Papilloma virus cond. A Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that infects the epidermis and mucous membranes Both vaccines protest against two of the HPV types (HPV-16 …

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Blood Banking and Transfusion – II (Compatibility Test)

Compatibility Test A full cross-matching procedure consists of: Immediate spin cross-match at room temperature Indirect antiglobulin test at 37 degree Celcius. Immediate Spin Cross-Match Purpose of it to detect ABO incompatibility. Equal volumes of 2 % saline suspension of cells of donor and recipient’s serum are mixed, incubated at room temperature for 5 minutes and …

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Semisynthetic penicillins

Semisynthetic penicillins Semi-synthetic penicillins are produced by chemically combining specific side chains (in place of benzyl side chain of PnG) or by incorporating specific precursors in the mould cultures. Classification of Semisynthetic penicillins Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins Methicillin, Cloxacillin, Dicloxacillin. These congeners have side chains that protectthe B-lactam ring from attack by staphylococcalpenicillinase. Non penicillinase producing organisms …

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Thyroid Gland – II (Graves Disease)

Thyroid Gland – II (Graves Disease) Robert James Graves Irish Surgeon, 1796-1853 Wrote and Published “Graves Clinical Lectures” in 1843 & 1848. Graves Disease is named in his honor by Dr. Armand Trousseau. Armand Trousseau French Intermist, 1801 – 1867 Trousseau Sign of Tetany Trousseau Sign of Malignancy Coined the term Graves Disease. Grave’s Disease …

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Beta Lactams

Introduction to Beta-Lactams Penicillins Cephalosporins Beta lactamase inhibitors Monobactams Carbapenems Chemical Structure of Penicillins (Beta-Lactams) History (Beta-Lactams) Returning back to work from holiday on September 3rd, 1928, Fleming started to look through various petri dishes that contained colonies of Staphylococcus. He then noticed something unusual in one of the dishes. It was dotted with colonies …

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Orthomyxovirus

Orthomyxovirus (Influenza) Family The name myxovinus means virus with an affinityfor mucins. There are 2 main groups Orthomyxovinises Paramyxoviruses. All orthomyxovinises are influenza vinuses. INFLUENZA (Orthomyxovirus) Influenza is an acute respiratory tract infection usually occurs in sporadic, epidemics , pandemics . Three immunologic types of influenza virus areknown: A.B, and C, A group Antigenic changes …

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